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J

Joint administration

A court-approved mechanism under which two or more cases can be administered together. (Assuming no conflicts of interest, these separate businesses or individuals can pool their resources, hire the same professionals, etc.)

Joint petition

One bankruptcy petition filed by a husband and wife together.

Judge

An official of the Judicial branch with authority to decide lawsuits brought before courts. Used generically, the term judge may also refer to all judicial officers, including Supreme Court justices.

Judgeship

The position of judge. By statute, Congress authorizes the number of judgeships for each district and appellate court.

Judgment

The official decision of a court finally resolving the dispute between the parties to the lawsuit.

Judicial Conference of the United States

The policy-making entity for the federal court system. A 27-judge body whose presiding officer is the Chief Justice of the United States.

Jurisdiction

The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a certain type of case. It also is used as a synonym for venue, meaning the geographic area over which the court has territorial jurisdiction to decide cases.

Jurisprudence

The study of law and the structure of the legal system.

Jury

The group of persons selected to hear the evidence in a trial and render a verdict on matters of fact. See also grand jury.

Jury instructions

A judge's directions to the jury before it begins deliberations regarding the factual questions it must answer an

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